String in C

Group of characters can be stored in a character array. String in C language is an array of characters that is terminated by \0 (null character)

Declaration :

There are two ways to declare string in c language.

  • By char array
  • By string literal

 

string by char array

Syntax :
char ch[]={'h','e','l','l','o','\0'};

Note :

  • Declaring string size is not mandatory.

string by string literal

Syntax :
char ch[]="hello";

Note :

    • ‘\0’ is not necessary. C inserts the null character automatically.

Important Points :

  • The ‘%s’ is used to print string in c language.

Example of string :

	#include <stdio.h>

	int main(void)
	{
	char ch[11] = {'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '\0'};
	char ch2[11] = "hello";
	char c = 'h';

	printf("Character value is : %c\n",c);
	printf("\nChar Array Value is : %s\n", ch);
	printf("\nString Literal Value is : %s\n", ch2);

	return 0;
	}

 

Output :

Character value is : h
Char Array Value is : hello
String Literal Value is : hello

Example of gets and puts function :

    #include <stdio.h>

    int main(void)
    {
    char name[25] ;

    printf ( "Enter name : " ) ;
    gets ( name ) ;//for input

    printf("\nYour Name is : ");
    puts ( name ) ;//for output

    return 0;
    }

 

Output :

Enter name : hello
Your Name is : hello

 

String functions

Sr.No. Function & Purpose
1 strcpy(s1, s2);

Copies string s2 into string s1.

2 strcat(s1, s2);

Concatenates string s2 onto the end of string s1.

3 strlen(s1);

Returns the length of string s1.

4 strcmp(s1, s2);

Returns 0 if s1 and s2 are the same; less than 0 if s1<s2; greater than 0 if s1>s2.

5 strchr(s1, ch);

Returns a pointer to the first occurrence of character ch in string s1.

6 strstr(s1, s2);

Returns a pointer to the first occurrence of string s2 in string s1.